The Big-Bang
Meets It's Match

Billy Farmer doesn't like the Big Bang theory. It's too complicated. Too many forces, particles and organization. And what about this singularity thing - how did all the mass of the universe get in there before the Big Bang? There's also the matter of ages for the universe derived from star clusters being longer than that derived from the supposed expansion. Even the cornerstone of the Big Bang model, Hubble's law, falls apart when redshift evidence shows the Virgo cluster is contracting and not expanding. All this, argues Farmer, points to a static universe. A universe constantly forming and dissipating galaxies over and over again.

Farmer's static universe is infinitely large (to prevent gravitational collapse) and infinitely old (inferred from wrongly assuming redshift is a linear measure of distance). The microwave background radiation is simply the integrated light from a high redshift stellar population (odd how the light, presumably emitted by stars of different temperatures spread over a huge range of distances, appears to indicate a narrow temperature and distance range). Olber's paradox is helpfully forgotten.

Farmer also has an elegant light transmission device in his universe. Farmer's light has nothing to do with any particle features - it's strictly a wave. This "disturbance" requires a substance in which to propagate. So he resurrects the old ether idea - now described as the "universal entity". In order to survive the Michealson-Morley experiment, Farmer has his entity move with the earth (in the vicinity of any massive body, the entity moves with that body - with any luck it doesn't cause any drag). So now, the speed of light has no preferred speed. Velocities are additive again.

You may think an infinitely old universe would run out of it's hydrogen supply as it is burned by stars. This is solved by the ever-helpful universal entity. Instead of mass and energy being equivalent as in our normal universe (relativity is no longer needed, by the way), space and matter are the two phases of the universal entity. Gravity, due to matter, can affect the space phase by drawing it in and, through the increase in density of the space phase, cause it to form matter - hydrogen, in fact. So hydrogen is constantly being created into clouds between the stars.

Gravity also causes the space phase to concentrate in and near matter. This explains how high refractive indices have slower light propagation. Unfortunately, lower speeds with higher densities is completely opposite to the transmission of sound which is Farmer's main source of analogies.

Having redshift be a function strictly of distance and not due to an recessional velocity could be arranged by having the wavelength of a lightwave gradually increase as it propagates. Farmer isn't exactly sure how this would work - the mechanism he sketches for us requires a preferred position for the light emitting object which won't work.

Farmer retires relativity because it doesn't make sense. Besides, it isn't needed because all observational proof for it can be explained with our universal entity. Clocks on airplanes and muon decays in the atmosphere and even light deflection by massive bodies can all be explained by the density gradient in the ether near matter. In fact, this gradient seems to create a time dialation of it's own and thereby screws up Farmer's demonstration arguing against the possibility of relativity. E=mc2 gets replaced in a scenerio where the mass phase is converted into the space phase through nuclear reactions (he doesn't go into an explaination for this) and the resulting expansion somehow creates light. All this creation of light in an infinite universe seems to violate conservation of energy.

The final end product of Farmer's galaxies are quasars. Let's forget that there appears to be a lot more quasars in the distant past than there are now. Galaxies are slowly collapsing thru gravity to form quasars which, Farmer speculates, are the large scale equivalent of supernovae. Since they are so big, they must form a large amount of heavy elements in a process analogous to n-capture in supernovae. The heavy element content of our sun in indicative of a previous cycle of galaxy-to-quasar formation, writes Farmer. Helpfully ignoring the contribution of supernovae.

Leaving no rock unturned, Farmer sets about reforming atomic structure. Atoms have no empty space inside them - everything is filled with the universal entity, remember. The various forces are done away with. Even charge is replaced by a cohesion factor dependent on motion (I don't really understand most of this). Repulsive charges aren't needed because gravity is the only force and it is strictly attractive. The whole zoo of particles can be disregarded because they are untidy.

Farmer manages to prove that, as long as you are willing to forget enough details, you can come up with a theory which can describe a number of phenomena. An example from "Monty Python and the Holy Grail" may help:

Knight: "There are ways of telling if she is a witch."
Peasants: "There are? What are they? Tell us!"
Knight: "Tell me: What do you do with witches?"
Peasants: "Burn them!"
Knight: "And what else do you burn?"
Peasant1: "More witches!"
Peasant2: "..Wood!"
Knight: "Good. So why do witches burn?"
Peasant1: "...Coz ..they're made of ..wood?"
Knight: "Good!"

Known Publications:

Stuck in the Big Bang Quagmire: Sixty Years is Enough, (El Paso: 1993).
Universe Alternatives: Emerging Concepts of Size, Age, Structure and Behavior, (El Paso: 1995), 110 pages.

Contact Address:

Billy L. Farmer
6044 Bel Mar
El Paso, TX

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Last Modified: April 18, 1996